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Gothoni, Ralph

Picture: Gothoni, Ralph

Rauma (Finland), 1946. Ralph Gothoni is currently one of the most interesting personalities of the musical scene of our times because of his activity in the fields of Piano interpretation, chamber music, teaching and composition. In addition to all these activities he published, in 1998, essays such as 'The Creative Moment'. Since his debut with orchestra when he was only eleven years old, Gothoni has performed at the festivals of Salzburg, Berlin, Prague, Edinburgh, Tanglewood, and Ravinia, as well as the 'La Roque d'Antheron Festival', specialized in the Piano, and has collaborated with orchestras such as the Berlin Philarmonic, Bavarian Radio Symphonic, Chicago, Detroit, Toronto and the English Chamber Orchestra. His recording activity has given more than eighty editions for labels such as Bis, Decca, Deutsche Grammophon, EMI and Ondine, for which he has carried out more than twenty recordings in the last years. For this label, he has recorded the Britten 'Concerto' and, with the Finnish Radio Orchestra of his native country, Heitor Villa-Lobos' 'Choros XI'. He has been invited as guest artist to direct the Savolinna Opera Festival and to conduct the Turku Philarmonic Orchestra. He is Chamber Music Professor at the Berlin Hochschule and the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki. He is also sought after to impart Master Classes in specialized schools and Chamber Music Festivals. He has composed, amongst other things, three chamber Operas and the Cantata 'The Ox and its Shepherd'. Since 2000 he is head conductor of the English Chamber Orchestra. His great prestige has been recognized with important distinctions granted by governments and cultural institutions from Austria, Finland and the United States.

Biography

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van

Picture: BEETHOVEN, Ludwig van

Bonn, 1770 - Vienna, 1827. He was born in the German town of Bonn on the 16th of December 1770. His grandfather Ludwig and his father Johann were both musicians. Johann was to act as little Ludwig's first music teacher, but Ludwig soon changed to the court organist C. G. Neefe. Passing eleven years of age, Ludwig deputized for Neefe, and at twelve had his first music published. He then stayed as Neefe's assistant until 1787, when at seventeen, he took off for Vienna. Even though Vienna was to be his home for the rest of his life, this first visit was short. On hearing that his mother was dying, he quickly returned to Bonn. Five years later he finally moved to Vienna to live and work. After arriving in 1792 he studied composition and counterpoint under Haydn, Schenk, Salieri and Albrechtsberger. At the same time, he tried to establish himself as pianist and composer. His good relations with the towns aristocracy soon led to a secured income. In 1809, with the sole condition that he stayed in Vienna, Prince Kinsky, Prince Lobkowitz and Archduke Rudolp even guaranteed Beethoven a yearly income. But going back to the years around 1800, which is traditionally called the early period, he was still trying to master the high classical style. This strive culminated in the second symphony from 1801-1802. This is also the time when the middle period starts. From now up until 1813, Beethoven develops and enhances the high classical style into a more dynamic and individualistic style. It is now that he writes symphonies Nr. 3 - 8, piano consert Nr. 5 and a lot of chamber music. But as he learns to control his craft and develop the music into new undiscovered grounds, he also suffers from reminders of the pains of real life. He has early in life discovered that his hearing wasn't what it should be, and the disorder gets worse as time goes by. It gets to the point where Beethoven is thinking of ending his life as he sees no way out of his despair. That fact is documented in the letter he wrote to his brothers in 1802, the so called "Heiligenstadt Testament". This hearing disorder seems to have affected his social life to a great extent. He became difficult to handle in social interactions and could suddenly burst into outbreaks of anger and show bad temper where he usually insulted someone. If that is the reason for his troubles with women, or if their is something traumatic hidden in his childhood, I don't know, but the fact is that he never got involved with a woman in a normal relation. Beethoven seems to have been attracted to women he couldn't get, or at least was hard to get. An example is Antoine Brentano, with whom he had a relationship, but who broke up with him to marry a friend. It is she who is known as the "immortal beloved" in letters addressed to her from Beethoven in 1812. Now came a couple of years without much creative work. Instead he was tormented by personal matters concerning his nephew of which he tried to gain custody when the brother died in 1815. But Beethoven didn't have the capacity of a domestic human being, and even though he did win the struggle for custody, Beethovens relation with the nephew was tense and burdensome and it reached the point where little Karl tried to take his own life in 1826. This is also the so called late period in Beethovens musical career. His music is described as less dramatic and more introvert, but also, I would like to add, more mature and secure. It has a flavour of the genius growing old and an obvi

Biography

  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra in C major op 56 Triple Concerto (version for violin, cello and piano)

    I. Allegro

    CLASS 2629: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Part - 47' 25''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Interpenetration - 1' 01''
    Dynamics, Character - 1' 36''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 1' 11''
    Phrasing, Dynamics - 1' 40''
    Character, Dynamics - 2' 17''
    Dynamics, Articulation - 2' 04''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Accents - 1' 16''
    Character, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 02''
    Character, Phrasing - 1' 22''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 2' 42''
    The work, Character - 1' 02''
    Character, Phrasing - 1' 58''
    Duration, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 13''
    Interpenetration, The work - 1' 18''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Concerto for piano, violin, cello and orchestra in C major op 56 Triple Concerto (version for violin, cello and piano)

    II. Largo

    CLASS 2629: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Part - 14' 54''
    Interpenetration, Metrical rigor or freedom - 4' 17''
    Phrasing, Tension - 1' 33''
    Dynamics - 1' 58''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 3998: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 40' 33''
    Part - 31' 27''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 4021: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 30' 01''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    II. Adagio con espressione

    CLASS 3998: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 8' 39''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    II. Adagio con espressione

    CLASS 4021: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 34' 10''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    III. Allegretto. Tema con variazioni

    CLASS 4021: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 38' 36''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, clarinet or violin and cello in B flat major op 11

    III. Allegretto. Tema con variazioni

    CLASS 4026: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 58' 37''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in E flat major op 70 no. 2

    I. Poco sostenuto - Allegro ma non troppo

    CLASS 5492: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 34' 58''
    Part - 6' 29''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in E flat major op 70 no. 2

    I. Poco sostenuto - Allegro ma non troppo

    CLASS 5506: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 13' 55''
    Part - 4' 05''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in E flat major op 70 no. 2

    III. Allegretto ma non troppo

    CLASS 5497: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 32' 29''
    Part - 8' 35''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in E flat major op 70 no. 2

    IV. Finale. Allegro

    CLASS 5497: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 17' 38''
    Part - 14' 38''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in E flat major op 1 no. 1

    III. Scherzo. Allegro assai - Trio

    CLASS 4626: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 17' 28''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in B flat major op 97 'Archduke'

    III. Andante cantabile ma però con moto

    CLASS 5171: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 39' 15''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio in B flat major op 97 'Archduke'

    III. Andante cantabile ma però con moto

    CLASS 5172: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 22' 49''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Symphony no. 5 in c minor op 67 (arrangement for piano four hands)

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 4027: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 29' 45''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Symphony no. 5 in c minor op 67 (arrangement for piano four hands)

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 5173: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 7' 07''
    Part - 25' 00''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Symphony no. 5 in c minor op 67 (arrangement for piano four hands)

    II. Andante con moto

    CLASS 5173: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 38' 40''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Symphony no. 5 in c minor op 67 (arrangement for piano four hands)

    III. Scherzo. Allegro

    CLASS 5185: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 24' 13''
  • BEETHOVEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Symphony no. 5 in c minor op 67 (arrangement for piano four hands)

    IV. Allegro

    CLASS 5185: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 20' 45''

BONIS, Mélanie

Picture: BONIS, Mélanie

Paris, 1858 - Sarcelles, Seine-et-Oise, 1937. null

Biography

  • BONIS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quartet for piano, violin, viola and cello no. 1 in B flat major op 69

    IV. Final. Allegro ma non troppo

    CLASS 4936: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 23' 00''
  • BONIS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quartet for piano, violin, viola and cello no. 1 in B flat major op 69

    III. Andante

    CLASS 4936: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 46' 01''

BRAHMS, Johannes

Picture: BRAHMS, Johannes

Hamburg, 1833 - Vienna, 1897. Brahms was born in Hamburg. His father, who gave him his first music lessons, was a double bassist. Brahms showed early promise on the piano and helped to supplement the rather meager family income by playing the piano in restaurants and theaters, as well as by teaching. Although it is a widely-told tale that Brahms had to play the piano in bars and brothels, recent research, for example that by Kurt Hoffman, suggest that this is probably false. For a time, he also learned the violoncello, although his progress was cut short when his teacher absconded with Brahms's instrument. The young Brahms gave a few public concerts, but did not become well known as a pianist (although in later life he gave the premieres of both his Piano Concerto No. 1 in 1859 and his Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1881). He also began to compose, but his efforts did not receive much attention until he went on a concert tour with Eduard Reményi in 1853. On this tour he met Joseph Joachim, Franz Liszt, and later was introduced to the great German composer Robert Schumann. Reményi was, however, offended by Brahms' failure to praise Liszt's 'Sonata in B minor' wholeheartedly on a visit to the Court of Weimar where Liszt was the court musician. Many of Brahms' friends cited that Reményi, being the polished courtier, had expected the younger Brahms to conform to common practice of politely applauding a celebrity's piece which Brahms either failed to do or did not appear to do so with condescending compliment. He told Brahms that their friendship must end although it was not clear as to whether Liszt felt offended or otherwise. Joachim, however was to become one of his closest friends, and Schumann, through articles championing the young Brahms, played an important role in alerting the public to the young man's compositions. Brahms also became acquainted with Schumann's wife, the composer and pianist Clara, 14 years his senior, with whom he carried on a lifelong, emotionally passionate, but always platonic relationship. Brahms never married. In 1862 he settled permanently in Vienna and began to concentrate fully on composing. With work such as the German Requiem, Brahms eventually established a strong reputation and came to be regarded in his own lifetime as one of the great composers. This may have given him the confidence finally to complete his first symphony; this appeared in 1876, after about ten years of work. The other three symphonies then followed in fairly rapid succession (1877, 1883, 1885). Brahms frequently traveled, both for business (concert tours) and pleasure. He often visited Italy in the springtime, and usually sought out a pleasant rural location in which to compose during the summer. In 1890, the 57-year-old Brahms resolved to give up composing. However, as it turned out, he was unable to abide by his decision, and in the years before his death he produced a number of acknowledged masterpieces, including the two clarinet sonatas Op. 120 (1894) and the Four Serious Songs (Vier ernste Gesänge) Op. 121 (1896). While completing the Op. 121 songs Brahms fell ill of cancer (sources differ on whether this was of the liver or pancreas). His condition gradually worsened and he died on April 3, 1897. Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna.

Biography

  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quartet no. 1 in G minor op 25

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 2727: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Interpenetration, Dynamics - 1' 24''
    Character, Voice identification - 2' 23''
    Phrasing, Dynamics - 1' 17''
    Character, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 30''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 56''
    Clarity of execution, Tension - 1' 56''
    Interpenetration, Dynamics - 2' 04''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Interpenetration - 3' 13''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 1' 56''
  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quartet no. 1 in G minor op 25

    IV. Allegro

    CLASS 2727: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Tempo, Character - 1' 27''
    Accents, Dynamics - 1' 47''
    Interpenetration, Accents - 1' 28''
    Dynamics, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 26''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 23''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Sound quality - 2' 15''
    Maintaining the sound, Dynamics - 1' 45''
    Character, Accents - 1' 12''
    Entries, Accents - 1' 45''
    Indications for the execution, Trill - 2' 18''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 2' 07''
    Entries, Interpenetration - 2' 03''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Description - 2' 35''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Up-beat - 1' 01''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 1' 47''
    Character, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 03''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 2' 49''
    Dynamics, Vibrato - 1' 33''
    Fast passages, Dynamics - 2' 04''
  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for violin, horn and piano in E flat major op 40

    III. Adagio mesto

    CLASS 2604: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Metrical rigor or freedom, Sforzato - 2' 20''
    Interpenetration, Dynamics - 1' 23''
    Character, Attacks - 1' 05''
    Sound balance, Character - 2' 08''
  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for violin, horn and piano in E flat major op 40

    IV. Finale. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 2604: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Character, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 49''
  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for clarinet or viola, cello and piano in A minor op 114

    III. Andantino grazioso

    CLASS 4939: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 39' 53''
  • BRAHMS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for clarinet or viola, cello and piano in A minor op 114

    III. Andantino grazioso

    CLASS 5491: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 16' 58''

CHOPIN, Fryderyck Franciszek

Picture: CHOPIN, Fryderyck Franciszek

Zelazowa Wola, 1810 - Paris, 1849. Frédéric Chopin, a Polish composer and pianist, was one of the creators of the typically romantic character piece. All of his works include the piano. He was born on February 22, 1810, near Warsaw, Poland. At an early age, Chopin displayed artistic talents&#151;he was an artist, wrote poetry, and played piano without any formal instruction. The gifted child also began composing his own music and had his first piece of music published when he was just seven years old. In 1826 Chopin became a full-time student at Elsner's conservatory, where he received an excellent foundation in theory, harmony, and melody. Elsner, after recognizing that Chopin's style was too original to force into traditional patterns, granted Chopin the freedom to develop along clear personal lines. After visiting Berlin, Germany, where Chopin was exposed to the music of George Frederick Handel (1685-1759) and Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Chopin returned to Warsaw and heard Nicolò Paganini (1782-1840). Chopin recognized that he must leave Warsaw for exposure to other musicians. He went to Vienna, Austria, to try to arrange the publication of several of his works. After a successful debut at the Kärntnerthor Theater on August 11, 1829, he returned home only to prepare for a concert tour, this time through Germany and Italy. In Vienna Chopin composed the B Minor Scherzo and the G Minor Ballade, as well as others that demonstrated Chopin's fully developed personal style. When the twenty-year-old Chopin arrived in Paris, poor physical health prevented him from giving public performances. Nevertheless, he became a significant figure in Parisian artistic circles, numbering among his friends musicians, writers, and painters, as well as many wealthy and talented women. Chopin recognized that he did not have the stamina (strength) to compete in public against such talents as Franz Liszt (1811-1886) and Sigismund Thalberg (1812-1871). So long as he was able to earn enough by teaching, Chopin preferred composition to playing concerts. His musical tastes were public knowledge. Friendly with Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) and Mendelssohn, he was not impressed with their music. Nor, for that matter, did he appreciate Robert Schumann's (1810-1856) work, despite Schumann's warm welcome written for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik when Chopin first arrived in Paris. Schumann introduced Clara Wieck to Chopin's work, and eventually her performances of Chopin's pieces made favorable impressions on many audiences. Several young ladies appear to have been the object of Chopin's affections over the years, but the most celebrated female with whom he had a relationship was Aurore Dudevant, known as George Sand, whom he met in 1836. For nine years, beginning in 1838, after he had composed the "Funeral March" (which later became part of the B-flat Minor Sonata), she was his closest associate. Despite failing health, the composer completed his twenty-four Preludes in Valldemosa, Majorca (one of the Balearic Islands in the western Mediterranean). In 1846 Sand's children became a problem. Chopin sided with Solange, Sand's daughter, in arguments against Sand and her son, Maurice. Separation became inevitable, and the beginning of the end for Chopin. His health failed, and he lost all interest in composition. Chopin then moved to England, where he gave several private performances in London and on May 15 played for Queen Victoria (1819-1901). After a rest in Scotland, he retu

Biography

DEBUSSY, Claude

Picture: DEBUSSY, Claude

St Germain-en-Laye, 1862 - Paris, 1918. Born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines, France, Claude Debussy studied with Guiraud and others at the Paris Conservatoire (1872-84) and as an 1884 Prix de Rome winner, went to Rome, Italy, though more important impressions came from his visits to Bayreuth (1888, 1889) and from hearing Javanese gamelan music in Paris (1889). Wagner's influence is evident in the cantata La damoiselle élue (1888) and the Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire (1889) but other songs of the period, notably the settings of Verlaine (Ariettes oubliées, Trois mélodies, Fêtes galantes) are in a more capricious style, as are parts of the still somewhat Franckian G minor String Quartet (1893); in that work he used not only the Phrygian mode but also less standard modes, notably the whole-tone mode, to create the floating harmony he discovered through the work of contemporary writers: Mallarmé in the orchestral Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune (1894 - in 1912 used as music for the L'Après-midi d'un Faune ballet production) and Maeterlinck in the opera Pelléas et Mélisande, dating in large part from 1893-5 but not completed until 1902. These works also brought forward a fluidity of rhythm and color quite new to Western music. Pelléas, with its rule of understatement and deceptively simple declamation, also brought an entirely new tone to opera &#151; but an unrepeatable one. Debussy worked on other opera projects and left substantial sketches for two pieces after tales by Edgar Allan Poe (Le diable dans le beffroi and La chute de la maison Usher), but neither was completed. Instead, the main works were orchestral pieces, piano sets, and songs. Among his major orchestral works are the three Nocturnes (1899), characteristic studies of veiled harmony and texture ('Nuages'), exuberant cross-cutting ('Fêtes') and seductive whole-tone drift ('Sirènes'). La mer (1905) essays a more symphonic form, with a finale that works themes from the first movement, though the centerpiece (Jeux de vagues) proceeds much less directly and with more variety of color. The three Images (1912) are more loosely linked, and the biggest, Ibéria is itself a triptych, a medley of Spanish allusions. Finally, the ballet Jeux (1913) contains some of Debussy's strangest harmony and texture in a form that moves freely over its own field of motivic connection. Other late stage works, including the ballets Khamma (1912) and La boîte à joujoux (1913) and the mystery play Le martyre de St. Sébastien (1911), were not completely orchestrated by Debussy, though St. Sébastien is remarkable in sustaining an antique modal atmosphere that otherwise was touched only in relatively short piano pieces (eg. La cathédrale engloutie). Debussy wrote much piano music although the most important of them to begin with are works which, Verlaine fashion, look back at rococo decorousness with a modern cynicism and puzzlement (Suite bergamasque, 1890; Pour le piano, 1901). His first volume of Images pour piano 1904 - 1905 evokes tonality that was rarely heard in works by his contemporaries such as phrases suggesting the rippling of water in the first piece Reflets dans l'eau as well as a homage to Jean-Philippe Rameau's influence in a slow and mysterious court dance in the second piece Hommage à Rameau. But then, as in the orchestral pieces, Debussy began to associate his music with visual impressions of the East, Spain, landscapes etc, in a sequence of sets of short pieces. This can be heard in the volume of pieces known as

Biography

  • DEBUSSY | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Premier trio in G major

    I. Andantino con moto allegro

    CLASS 2601: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Contrast, Attitude of the musician - 1' 52''
    Themes and motifs, The public - 1' 10''
    Harmonic process, Timbre - 1' 12''
    Harmonic process, Character - 1' 22''
    Phrasing, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 36''
    Dynamics, Character - 1' 43''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 2' 17''
    Voice identification, Expressivity - 1' 31''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 55''
    Phrasing, Harmony - 1' 25''
    Dynamics, Sound balance - 1' 12''
    Phrasing, Voice identification - 1' 52''
    Dynamics, Maintaining the sound - 1' 14''
    Sound quality, Interpenetration - 1' 46''
    Pizzicato, Dynamics - 1' 16''
    Bow direction, Phrasing - 2' 57''
    Sound quality, Accents - 2' 21''
    Sound quality, Phrasing - 1' 53''
    Dynamics, Phrasing - 2' 40''
    Dynamics, Phrasing - 1' 58''
    Main melody, Attitude of the musician - 1' 52''
  • DEBUSSY | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Premier trio in G major

    II. Scherzo. Intermezzo

    CLASS 2601: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Fast passages, Interpenetration - 2' 47''
    Character, Accents - 2' 09''
    Trill, Character - 1' 04''
    Phrasing, Indications for the execution - 2' 19''

DVORÁK, Antonin

Picture: DVORÁK, Antonin

Nelahozeves, 1841 - Prague, 1904. Dvorák was born in Nelahozeves near Prague where he spent most of his life. He studied music in Prague's Organ School at the end of the 1850s, and through the 1860s played viola in the Bohemian Provisional Theatre Orchestra which was from 1866 conducted by Bedøich Smetana. From 1892 to 1895, Dvoøák was director of the National Conservatory in New York City. The Conservatory was founded by a wealthy socialite, Jeannette Thurber, who wanted a well-known composer as director in order to lend prestige to her institution. She wrote to Dvorák, asking him to accept the position, and he agreed, providing that she were willing to meet his conditions: that talented Native American and African-American students, who could not afford the tuition, must be admitted for free. She agreed to his conditions, and he sailed to America. It was during his time as director of the Conservatory that Dvorák formed a friendship with Harry Burleigh, who became an important African-American composer. Dvorák taught Burleigh composition, and in return, Burleigh spent hours on end singing traditional American Spirituals to Dvorák. Burleigh went on to compose settings of these Spirituals which compare favorably with European classical composition. It was during his visit to the United States that he wrote his most popular work, the Symphony No.9 'From the New World'. Also while in the USA he heard a performance of a cello concerto by the composer Victor Herbert. He was so excited by the possibilities of the cello and orchestra combination displayed in this concerto that he wrote a cello concerto of his own, the Cello Concerto in B minor (1895). Since then the concerto he wrote has grown in popularity and today it is frequently performed. He also left an unfinished work, the Cello Concerto in A major (1865), which was completed and orchestrated by the German composer Günter Raphael between 1925 and 1929. Dvoøák was a colorful personality. In addition to music, there were two particular passions in his life: locomotive engines, and the breeding of pigeons. He eventually returned to Prague where he was director of the conservatoire from 1901 until his death in 1904.

Biography

  • DVORÁK | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major op 81

    I. Allegro ma non troppo

    CLASS 2602: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Tempo, Character - 2' 50''
    Up-beat, Dynamics - 1' 04''
    Sound quality, Phrasing - 2' 03''
    Interpenetration, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 29''
    Dynamics, Phrasing - 1' 50''
    Dynamics, Sound quality - 1' 48''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 1' 41''
    Interpenetration, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 00''
    Dynamics, Character - 1' 21''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 2' 37''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 1' 03''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 2' 31''
    Character, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 13''
    Character, Themes and motifs - 1' 29''
    Rigor or freedom in reading, Editions - 1' 59''
    Interpenetration, Phrasing - 1' 50''
    Sound quality, Accents - 1' 33''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Accents - 2' 17''
    Dynamics, Interpenetration - 1' 39''
    Metrics, Evenness - 1' 52''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Trill - 2' 24''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 3' 05''
  • DVORÁK | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Dumky for piano, violin and cello op 90

    Dumka 1. Lento maestoso - Allegro molto

    CLASS 4001: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 37' 29''
  • DVORÁK | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Dumky for piano, violin and cello op 90

    Dumka 2. Poco Adagio - Vivace non troppo

    CLASS 4001: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 25' 51''
  • DVORÁK | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Dumky for piano, violin and cello op 90

    Dumka 3. Andante - Vivace non troppo

    CLASS 4001: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 18' 11''

FRANCK, César

Picture: FRANCK, César

Lieja, 1822 - Paris, 1890. Born at Liège in 1822, César Franck was originally intended by his father for a career as a virtuoso pianist. In Paris his nationality excluded him at first from the Conservatoire, where he eventually failed to achieve the necessary distinction as a performer, turning his attention rather to composition. In 1846 he left home and went to earn his living as a teacher and organist, winning particular fame in the second capacity at the newly built church of Ste. Clotilde, with its Cavaillé-Coll organ. He drew to him a loyal and devoted circle of pupils and in 1871 won some official recognition as the nominated successor of Benoist as organ professor at the Conservatoire. A man of gentle character, known to his pupils as Pater seraphicus, he exercised considerable influence through his classes and performances, although remaining something of an outsider as a composer in a Paris interested largely in opera. Franck's best known Orchestral music are the Symphonic Variations for solo piano and orchestra and the Symphony in D minor, completed in 1888 and first performed at a Conservatoire concert the following year. A brief series of symphonic poems includes the early Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne, based on Victor Hugo, Le chasseur maudit, inspired by a ballad by Burger, Les Djinns, after Hugo, and Psyché, a work that also calls for a chorus. Franck wrote a number of large scale Choral music on biblical subjects, with smaller scale works for occasional or liturgical use. This last category includes the well known Panis angelicus of 1872, originally for tenor, organ, harp, cello and double bass. The Panis angelicus was later interpolated into the three-voice Mass of 1861. Franck wrote one Violin Sonata, which, like his symphony, is united by a cyclic use of thematic material that connects the movements. There is a fine Piano Quintet, completed in 1879 and a final String Quartet, written in 1890. As a very distinguished organist, Franck wrote remarkably little for the instrument on which his improvisations had won him fame and pupils. Organ compositions published include Trois chorals of 1890 and three pieces, Trois pièces, written a dozen years earlier. The six organ pieces of 1860-62 include a Fantaisie, Grande pièce symphonique, Prélude, fugue et variation, Pastorale, Prière and Final. Franck's earlier piano music was designed for his own virtuoso performance. Two later works remain in general repertoire, the Prélude, choral et fugue of 1884 and the Prélude, aria et final completed in 1887.

Biography

  • FRANCK | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in F minor

    II. Lento, con molto sentimiento

    CLASS 2729: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Character, Vibrato - 2' 37''
    Dynamics, Harmony - 1' 45''
    Character, Dynamics - 1' 43''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Phrasing - 1' 53''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Vibrato - 2' 33''
    Phrasing, Tension - 1' 51''
    Phrasing, Character - 3' 30''
    Dynamics, Indications for the execution - 2' 50''
    Attitude of the musician, Character - 2' 51''
    Phrasing, Character - 2' 26''
    Phrasing, Interpenetration - 1' 26''
    Character, Sound quality - 1' 51''
    Sound quality, Dynamics - 1' 58''
    Entries - 1' 46''
    Clarity of execution, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 53''
    Sound balance, Indications for the execution - 2' 20''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Maintaining the sound - 1' 14''

GENERALITIES, GENERALITIES

Picture: GENERALITIES, GENERALITIES

Biography

GRAINGER, Percy

Picture: GRAINGER, Percy

Melbourne, 1882 - New York, 1961

Biography

GRANADOS, Enrique

Picture: GRANADOS, Enrique

Lerida, 1867 - Canal de la Mancha, 1916. Enrique Granados Campiña was born on the 27 July 1867 in Lérida. His father was a Cuban-born army officer. He began his music education at an early age. Studied piano in Barcelona with Joan Baptista Pujol. Pujol had been a student of Pere Tintorer, a Majorcan pianist who worked with Liszt. Pujol is also the creator what is known as the first Catalan piano tradition. Albéniz, Malats (Mompou's teacher) and Ricard Viñes, were some of his numerous pupils. In 1887 Granados travelled to Paris to study with Charles de Beriot. There, he maintained his friendship with Albéniz, Nin and Viñes, and at the same time had direct contact with the most important French composers of that period, Fauré, Debussy, Ravel, Dukas, d'Indy, and had a close relationship with Camille Saint-Saëns. Returned to Barcelona in 1889 to begin a career as a piano virtuoso and composer. In 1892 gave his first public performance of Grieg's Piano Concerto in Spain. During that period, he appeared in many chamber music concerts with close friends like Pau Casals, Mathieu Crickboom, Jacques Thibaud, Emil von Sauer and Camille Saint-Saëns. Between 1895 and 1898 premiered several of his stage works, 'Miel de Alcarria', 'María del Carmen', and a number of chamber and piano pieces. In 1901 founded the Granados Academy, which became a landmark in the art of piano performance, as understood by Granados. Granados and his wife Amparo died after drowning when the Sussex, the boat in which they travelled from London to Barcelona (the last leg of their return journey after the premiere in New York of the acclaimed opera 'Goyescas') was struck by a torpedo in the English Channel. Granados directed the Academy until his death, and was succeeded by his pupil and friend Frank Marshall. To avoid inheritance problems after Granados' sudden death, Marshall and the Academy Chair Felipe Pedrell changed the academy name to Marshall Academy, which made Marshall its sole proprietor. Together with Albéniz and Falla, Granados is frequently recognised as a nacionalist composer. Nowadays his very personal romantic style would be best described by the term neo-romantic. An expressive style influenced by Chopin, Schumann, Schubert and Grieg, and Goya's 'Majas' from the 18th century.

Biography

LANGE-MÜLLER, Peter Erasmus

Picture: LANGE-MÜLLER, Peter Erasmus

Biography

  • LANGE-MÜLLER | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano Trio in F major op 53

    II. Allegretto piacevole - l'istesso tempo (scherzando) - Tempo I

    CLASS 4022: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 1' 07''
  • LANGE-MÜLLER | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano Trio in F major op 53

    II. Allegretto piacevole - l'istesso tempo (scherzando) - Tempo I

    CLASS 5177: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 25' 24''
  • LANGE-MÜLLER | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano Trio in F major op 53

    II. Allegretto piacevole - l'istesso tempo (scherzando) - Tempo I

    CLASS 5189: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 5' 56''
  • LANGE-MÜLLER | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano Trio in F major op 53

    III. Allegro con brio, ma non troppo presto

    CLASS 5177: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 14' 39''
  • LANGE-MÜLLER | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano Trio in F major op 53

    III. Allegro con brio, ma non troppo presto

    CLASS 5189: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 7' 22''

MENDELSSOHN, Felix

Picture: MENDELSSOHN, Felix

Hamburg, 1809 - Leipzig, 1847. Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born, and generally known in English-speaking countries, as Felix Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. The grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, he was born into a notable Jewish family, although he himself was brought up initially without religion, and later as a Lutheran Christian. He was recognized early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his abilities. Indeed his father was disinclined to allow Felix to follow a musical career until it became clear that he intended seriously to dedicate himself to it. Early success in Germany was followed by travel throughout Europe; Mendelssohn was particularly well received in Britain as a composer, conductor and soloist, and his ten visits there (during which many of his major works were premiered) form an important part of his adult career. His essentially conservative musical tastes however set him apart from many of his more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Liszt, Wagner and Berlioz. The Conservatory he founded at Leipzig became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook. Mendelssohn's work includes symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano and chamber music. He also had an important role in the revival of interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical tastes and antisemitism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his creative originality is now being recognized and re-evaluated. He is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era.

Biography

  • MENDELSSOHN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio no. 1 in D minor op 49

    II. Courante

    CLASS 2728: [O.V.: English] [Tras: Spanish ]

    Content

    Metrical rigor or freedom, Timbre - 1' 11''
    Character, Styles and periods - 1' 33''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 1' 00''
    Phrasing, Main melody - 1' 48''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Duration - 1' 58''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 23''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Sound balance - 1' 15''

MESSIAEN, Olivier

Picture: MESSIAEN, Olivier

Avignon, 1908 - Paris, 1992. Olivier Messiaen was a French composer, organist and ornithologist, widely regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century. His music is rhythmically complex (he was interested in rhythms from ancient Greek and from Hindu sources); harmonically and melodically it is based on modes of limited transposition, which he abstracted from his early compositions and improvisations. Many of his compositions depict what he termed "the marvellous aspects of the faith", and drew on his deeply held Roman Catholicism. He travelled widely and wrote works inspired by diverse influences such as Japanese music, the landscape of Bryce Canyon in Utah and the life of St. Francis of Assisi. He said he perceived colours when he heard certain musical chords, particularly those built from his modes (a phenomenon known as synaesthesia); combinations of these colours, he said, were important in his compositional process. For a short period Messiaen experimented with the parametrisation associated with "total serialism", in which field he is often cited as an innovator. His style absorbed many exotic musical influences such as Indonesian gamelan (tuned percussion often features prominently in his orchestral works). He was one of the first composers to use an electronic keyboard&#151;in this case, the ondes Martenot&#151;in an orchestral work. Messiaen entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 11 and was taught by Paul Dukas, Maurice Emmanuel, Charles-Marie Widor and Marcel Dupré, among others. He was appointed organist at the Église de la Sainte-Trinité in Paris in 1931, a post held until his death. He taught at the Schola Cantorum during the 1930s where one of his students was Georges Savaria. On the fall of France in 1940, Messiaen was made a prisoner of war, during which time he composed his Quatuor pour la fin du temps ("Quartet for the end of time") for the four available instruments&#151;piano, violin, cello and clarinet. The piece was first performed by Messiaen and fellow prisoners for an audience of inmates and prison guards. He was appointed professor of harmony soon after his release in 1941, and professor of composition in 1966 at the Paris Conservatoire, positions he held until his retirement in 1978. His many distinguished pupils included Pierre Boulez and Yvonne Loriod, who became his second wife. He found birdsong fascinating, believed birds to be the greatest musicians, and considered himself as much an ornithologist as a composer. He notated bird songs worldwide and incorporated birdsong transcriptions into most of his music. His innovative use of colour, his conception of the relationship between time and music, his use of birdsong and his desire to express religious ideas are among features that make Messiaen's music distinctive.

Biography

  • MESSIAEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quatour pour la fin du temps for clarinet, piano, violin and cello

    V. Louange à l'Éternité de Jésus

    CLASS 5521: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 12' 14''
  • MESSIAEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quatour pour la fin du temps for clarinet, piano, violin and cello

    VI. Danse de la fureur, pour les sept trompettes

    CLASS 5521: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 5' 26''
  • MESSIAEN | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quatour pour la fin du temps for clarinet, piano, violin and cello

    VII. Fouillis d'arcs-en-ciel, pour l'Ange qui annonce la fin du Temps

    CLASS 5521: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 3' 51''

MILHAUD, Darius

Picture: MILHAUD, Darius

Marseille, 1892 - Geneva, 1974. Born in Marseilles to a Jewish family from Aix-en-Provence, Milhaud studied in Paris at the Paris Conservatory where he met his fellow group members Arthur Honegger and Germaine Tailleferre. He studied composition under Charles Widor and harmony and counterpoint with André Gédalge. He also studied privately with Vincent d'Indy. As a young man he worked for a while in the diplomatic entourage of Paul Claudel, the eminent poet and dramatist, who was serving as French ambassador to Brazil. On a trip to the United States in 1922, Darius Milhaud heard "authentic" jazz for the first time, on the streets of Harlem, which left a great impact on his musical outlook. The following year, he completed his composition "La création du monde" ("The Creation of the World"), using ideas and idioms from jazz, cast as a ballet in six continuous dance scenes. He left France in 1939 and emigrated to America in 1940 (his Jewish background made it impossible for him to return to his native country until after its Liberation). He secured a teaching post at Mills College in Oakland, California, where he collaborated with Henri Temianka and the Paganini Quartet. In an extraordinary concert there in 1949, the Budapest Quartet performed the composer's 14th String Quartet, followed by the Paganini's performance of his 15th; and then both ensembles played the two pieces together as an octet. The following year, these same pieces were performed at the Aspen Music Festival in Colorado, by the Paganini and Juilliard Quartet. Legendary jazz pianist Dave Brubeck arguably became Milhaud's most famous student when Brubeck furthered his music studies at Mills College in the late 1940s (he named his eldest son Darius). However, his former students also include two of the seminal figures in America's version of minimalism, Philip Glass and Steve Reich, several arrangers and composers associated with West Coast modern jazz, and popular songwriter Burt Bacharach. Milhaud told Bacharach, "Don't be afraid of writing something people can remember and whistle. Don't ever feel discomfited by a melody". Milhaud (like his contemporaries Paul Hindemith, Gian Francesco Malipiero, Bohuslav Martin&#367; and Heitor Villa-Lobos) was an extremely rapid creator, for whom the art of writing music seemed almost as natural as breathing. His most popular works include Le bœuf sur le toit (ballet), La création du monde (a ballet for small orchestra with solo saxophone, influenced by jazz), Scaramouche (for Saxophone and Piano, also for two pianos), and Saudades do Brasil (dance suite). His autobiography is titled Notes sans musique (Notes Without Music), later revised as Ma vie heureuse (My Happy Life). From 1947 to 1971 he taught alternate years at Mills and the Paris Conservatoire, until poor health, which caused him to use a wheelchair during his later years (beginning sometime before 1947), compelled him to retire. He died in Geneva, aged 81.

Biography

MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus

Picture: MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus

Salzburg, 1756 - Vienna, 1791. Austrian composer from the Classical period. Regarded as one of the most prominent in the history of Western music. Born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756, baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Studied with his father Leopold Mozart, a renowned composer and violinist who had a post at the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg. At the age of six Mozart was already a master keyboard player, an accomplished violinist, and showed extraordinary improvisation and sight-reading abilities.The five small pieces he composed at that age are still performed today. In 1762 Leopold took his son on performance tours to several courts in Europe. During that time he composed sonatas, for both hapsichord and violin (1763), a symphony (1764), an oratorio (1766) and the comic opera 'La finta semplice' (1768). In 1769 was appointed Konzertmeister at the Archbishopric of Salzburg, and at the Scala di Milano, Pope Clemens XIV created Mozart a Knight of the Golden Spur. That same year he composed 'Bastien und Bastienne', his first singspiel (an opera, usually comic and in German with spoken dialogue). The following year he was commissioned to compose his first opera, 'Mitridate, re di Ponto', which he wrote in Milan. That piece contributed to consolidate his reputation as an extraordinary musician. Mozart returned to Salzburg in 1771. His post in the city was not remunerated, but it allowed him to compose a great number of important works, that is, undermining his finances. In 1777 he was given permission to engage in a concerts tour, and he set out to Munich with his mother. At twenty-one, Mozart travelled the courts of Europe with the purpose to find a well-paid and satisfactory employment, but he didn't succeed. He went to Mannheim, the musical capital of Europe at the time, with the aim of finding a position in the orchestra, and there fell in love with Aloysia Weber. Leopold sent his wife and son to Paris. His mother's death in the French capital in 1778, together with Weber's rejection and the disdain from the aristocrats he worked for, made that two year period between his arrival in Paris and his return to Salzburg in 1779, one of the gloomiest in Mozart's life. Back in his hometown, Mozart composed two Masses and a great number of sonatas, symphonies and concertos. These works reveal, for the first time, a distinctive personal style and an exceptional musical maturity. The considerable success of his Italian opera 'Idomeneo, re di Creta', commissioned and composed in 1781, led to an invitation to visit the Archbishop of Salzburg in his palace in Vienna, but once there, Mozart felt offended at being treated like a servant and left. He then started teaching at a house that some friends rented for him. There he composed the singspiel 'Die Entführung aus dem Serail', commissioned in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II. The same year he married Constanze Weber, Alysia's younger sister; together they suffered chronic financial troubles until Mozart's death. The operas 'Le nozze di Figaro' (1786) and 'Don Giovanni' (1787), on librettos by Lorenzo Da Ponte, were not well received in Vienna in spite of having been a success in Prague. From 1787 until the creation of 'Così fan tutte' (1790, also on libretto by Da Ponte), Mozart didn't have any new commissions for operas. He composed 'La clemenza di Tito' for the coronation of emperor Leopold II in 1791, on a libretto by Metastasio. The great symphonies from 1788 No. 39 in E flat

Biography

  • MOZART | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major K 502

    II. Larghetto

    CLASS 4627: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 15' 58''
    Part - 19' 30''

POULENC, Francis

Picture: POULENC, Francis

Paris, 1899 - Paris, 1963. He was a Parisian by birth and always preferred the city to the country. However, in order to have the quiet solitude he needed to write music, he spent as much time as possible in his home in the Loire Valley. This has led to the misconception that he preferred the country, but in fact he found rustic life boring and he hated walks. He was called to military service twice, the first time beginning January 1918, during which Poulenc served a ten-day sentence in military prison for overstaying a leave in Paris. (Ivry 1996) Poulenc was gay, openly so from his first serious relationship, that with painter Richard Chanelaire to whom he dedicated his Concert champêtre: 'You have changed my life, you are the sunshine of my thirty years, a reason for living and working.' (Ivry 1996) He also once said, 'You know that I am as sincere in my faith, without any messianic screamings, as I am in my Parisian sexuality.' (Aldrich 2004) Poulenc was profundly affected later in life by the death of friends. In 1923 he was 'unable to do anything' for two days after the death from typhoid fever of his twenty year old partner, novelist Raymond Radiguet. However, two weeks later he had moved on, joking to Diaghilev at the rehearsals he was unable to leave, about helping a dancer 'warm up'. (Ivry 1996) Critic Claude Rostand, in a July 1950 Paris-Presse article, described Poulenc simplistically as 'half bad boy, half monk.' le moine et le voyou. He was a bridge enthusiast, a dog lover, a hypochondriac, and suffered from low self esteem. At one point he was addicted to barbiturates. (Ivry 1996) Francis Poulenc died in Paris on January 30, 1963 and was interred in Cimetière Père Lachaise, Paris.

Biography

RIMSKY-KORSAKOV, Nikolay Andreyevich

Picture: RIMSKY-KORSAKOV, Nikolay Andreyevich

Novgorod, 1844 - St Petersburg, 1908

Biography

  • RIMSKY-KORSAKOV | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quintet for flute, clarinet, horn, basson and piano in B flat major

    I. Allegro con brio

    CLASS 4623: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 38' 31''
    Part - 12' 12''
  • RIMSKY-KORSAKOV | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quintet for flute, clarinet, horn, basson and piano in B flat major

    II. Andante

    CLASS 4623: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 28' 25''
  • RIMSKY-KORSAKOV | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Quintet for flute, clarinet, horn, basson and piano in B flat major

    III. Rondo. Allegretto

    CLASS 4623: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 10' 15''

SCHUBERT, Franz

Picture: SCHUBERT, Franz

Vienna, 1797 - Vienna, 1828. Franz Peter Schubert was among the first of the Romantics, and the composer who, more than any other, brought the art song (lied) to artistic maturity. During his short but prolific career, he produced masterpieces in nearly every genre, all characterized by rich harmonies, an expansive treatment of classical forms, and a seemingly endless gift for melody. Schubert began his earliest musical training studying with his father and brothers. Having passed an audition, Schubert enrolled at the Convict school that trained young vocalists to eventually sing at the chapel of The Imperial Court. Schubert began to explore composition and wrote a song that came to the attention of the institution's director, Antonio Salieri, who along with the school's professor of harmony, hailed young Schubert as a genius. In 1813, after Schubert's voice broke, he returned to live with his father, who directed him to follow in his footsteps and become a schoolteacher. Schubert begrudgingly complied and worked miserably in that capacity by day, while composing prolifically by night. He had written more than 100 songs as well as numerous symphonic, operatic, and chamber music scores, before he reached the age of 20. Schubert finally left his teaching position to dedicate himself completely to musical pursuits. During the summer of 1818, the young composer worked as a private music teacher to the aristocratic Esterházy family. When he left that post in the fall, Schubert lived a somewhat bohemian lifestyle, composing and spending time with a group of friends that acted as his personal support system. In 1820, Schubert was commissioned by two opera houses, the Karthnerthor Theatre and Theatre-an-der-Wein, to compose a pair of operas. He wrote Zwillingsbruden, and Zauberharfe, both of which were unenthusiastically received. Schubert failed to secure a contract with a publisher, as none were willing to take a chance on a relatively unknown composer who wrote (harmonically) untraditional music. Schubert, along with the support of his artistic friends, published his own work for a collection of roughly 100 subscribers. These efforts, however, were financially unrewarding, and Schubert struggled to sustain himself. His work garnered little attention and contemporary composers dismissed his music as presumptuous and immature. In 1823, Schubert was elected to the Musikverein of Graz, as an honorary member. Though this brought no financial reward and was an inconsequential appointment, Schubert relished its slight recognition, and to show his gratitude, composed his famous Unfinished Symphony. Five years later, Schubert's music was featured at a concert at Vienna's Musikverein. His work was received quite enthusiastically, and to much critical acclaim. This marked the only time during the composer's life that he enjoyed such success. This seemed to provide Schubert with a renewed sense of optimism, and despite illness, the composer continued to produce at an incredible rate. He began to organize a scheme to increase his artistic popularity, by continuing to evaluate his work and progress as a musician, perhaps even planning to study harmony privately. Schubert's health did not improve, and he soon found himself at death's door. During the composer's last moments, he instructed his brother Ferdinand to ensure that he would be buried alongside Ludwig van Beethoven's grave. Schubert revered the legendary composer, and was grateful to him, as Beethoven had praised his wo

Biography

  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major D 667 'Die Forelle'

    I. Allegro vivace

    CLASS 7280: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 51' 50''
    The work, Description - 1' 59''
    Tempo, Character - 1' 32''
    Interpenetration, Dynamics - 1' 11''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Pulse - 1' 23''
    Accents, Phrasing - 1' 15''
    The author, Dynamics - 1' 11''
    Phrasing, Contrast - 1' 35''
    Articulation, Rhythm - 1' 17''
    Phrasing, Dynamics - 1' 44''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 56''
    Ending of the sound, Interpenetration - 1' 49''
    Bow direction, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 21''
    Accents, Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 22''
    Trill, Vibrato - 1' 20''
    Character, Voice identification - 1' 42''
    Harmonic process, Dynamics - 1' 31''
    Dynamics, The author - 1' 10''
    Phrasing, Dynamics - 3' 12''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major D 667 'Die Forelle'

    III. Scherzo. Presto

    CLASS 4625: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 12' 14''
    Part - 6' 05''
    Part - 10' 56''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major D 667 'Die Forelle'

    IV. Tema con variazioni. Andantino - Allegretto

    CLASS 4625: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 47' 30''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major D 667 'Die Forelle'

    IV. Tema con variazioni. Andantino - Allegretto

    CLASS 7280: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 31' 49''
    Form, Variation - 1' 25''
    Themes and motifs, Character - 1' 22''
    Bow direction, Expressivity - 1' 09''
    Sound quality, Rhythm - 1' 54''
    Phrasing, Attitude of the musician - 1' 18''
    Soloist, Articulation - 1' 05''
    Dynamics, Rhythm - 2' 06''
    Tempo, Attitude of the musician - 1' 03''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Fantasie for piano four hands in F minor D 940 op 103

    I. Allegro molto moderato

    CLASS 5503: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 4' 48''
    Part - 26' 31''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Fantasie for piano four hands in F minor D 940 op 103

    III. Allegro vivace - Tempo I

    CLASS 5503: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 10' 17''
    Part - 3' 53''
    Part - 21' 08''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Fantasie for piano four hands in F minor D 940 op 103

    II. Largo

    CLASS 5503: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 2' 25''
    Part - 7' 28''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    I. Allegro moderato

    CLASS 3714: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 52' 14''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    I. Allegro moderato

    CLASS 3807: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 1h 27' 55''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    I. Allegro moderato

    CLASS 4017: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 1h 04' 48''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    II. Andante un poco mosso

    CLASS 3714: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 36' 24''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    II. Andante un poco mosso

    CLASS 3807: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 13' 43''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    II. Andante un poco mosso

    CLASS 4017: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 33' 53''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    III. Scherzo. Allegro - Trio

    CLASS 4017: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 18' 21''
    Part - 7' 21''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in B flat major D 898 op 99

    IV. Rondo. Allegro vivace - Presto

    CLASS 4022: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 53' 38''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for piano, violin and cello in E flat major D 929 op 100

    I. Allegro

    CLASS 4622: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 11' 33''
    Part - 28' 08''
    Part - 54' 39''
  • SCHUBERT | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quintet in A major D 667 'Die Forelle'

    CLASS 7280: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Description, Styles and periods - 4' 03''
    The author, Styles and periods - 2' 30''

SCHUMANN, Robert

Picture: SCHUMANN, Robert

Zwichau, 1810 - Endenich, 1856. Robert Schumann was born 8 June, 1810 in Zwickau, Germany. He was the son of a book publisher and writer. As a child, Robert Schumann showed early abilities in both music and literature, but was not considered a prodigy by any means. At sixteen, after the tragic deaths of his sister and father, he was sent to the University of Leipzig at his mother's insistence. He studied law there until he was able to convince his mother of his need to study music. In Leipzig, from 1830, he worked under the renowned piano teacher Friedrich Wieck, whose favourite daughter, Clara, was already a well-known piano prodigy. It is thought that Schumann and Clara were lovers by 1835. His own ambitions as a pianist were hampered by a weakness in the fingers of one hand (possibly caused by they syphilis that would later claim his sanity), but the 1830s nevertheless brought a number of marvellous compositions for the instrument. Robert Schumann's work is noted for its links to literature. Many of his compositions allude to characters or scenes from poems, novels, and plays; others are like musical crossword puzzles with key signatures or musical themes that refer to people or places important to him. This intimate relationship with the written word gives his music an extra dimension. At the same time, its sheer joyfulness ranks it among the best loved music of the age. Schumann was not only interested in literature, he was also a working journalist who edited his own influential musical magazine, the Neue Zeitsfchrift fur Musik. This put Schumann in a unique position: his music was often inspired by the world of words, while his work as writer and critic kept him in touch with the Romantic musical scene at large. Through his music journal he helped to bring the young Chopin and, later, the young Brahms to the attention of the German-speaking public. Schumann's courtship of and marriage to Clara Wieck is one of the most famous romances in music history. Clara's father was one of Schumann's piano teachers. He predicted a great future for his pupil, but he fiercely opposed the young man's request to marry his daughter. He not only disapproved of Schumann's drinking, he also wanted Clara to become a famous pianist in her own right. For years Friedrich did everything he could to keep Schumann and Clara apart. Schumann eventually took Wieck to court and obtained permission to marry her, but it had been a long and bitter struggle. Overall, Robert Schumann's early piano compositions, many of which were played by his wife Clara, are the most original and daring of his works. As a composer, he tended to concentrate on one type of music at a time. For instance, his songs qualify him as a worthy successor to Schubert. And while his great orchestral works remain closer to the traditional Classical forms of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, he is regarded as a talented, but not masterful. Nor was he successful as a composer of operas. It is in his piano music and his songs - Carnival ("Dainty Scenes on Four Notes") in particular - that he accomplished his greatest work. In 1850 Schumann was appointed Music Director to the city of Dusseldorf, where he enjoyed no great success. Suffering from hallucinations and rapidly declining mental facilities, he resigned in 1853. Mounting fears of insanity plunged Schumann into a serious mental break-down, and in 1854 he attempted suicide by throwing himself into the Rhine. He was then confined to an asylum at Endenich,

Biography

SHOSTAKOVICH, Dmitry

Picture: SHOSTAKOVICH, Dmitry

St Petersburg, 1906 - Moscow, 1975. Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich was a Soviet Russian composer and one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century. Shostakovich achieved fame in the Soviet Union under the patronage of Leon Trotsky's chief of staff Mikhail Tukhachevsky, but later had a complex and difficult relationship with the Stalinist bureaucracy. His music was officially denounced twice, in 1936 and 1948, and was periodically banned. Yet he also received accolades and state awards and served in the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Despite the official controversy, his works were popular and well received. After a period influenced by Prokofiev and Stravinsky, Shostakovich developed a hybrid style, as exemplified by his opera Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (1934). This single work juxtaposed a wide variety of trends, including the neo-classical style (showing the influence of Stravinsky) and post-Romanticism (after Mahler). Sharp contrasts and elements of the grotesque characterize much of his music. Shostakovich's orchestral works include 15 symphonies and six concerti. His music for chamber ensembles includes 15 string quartets, a piano quintet, two pieces for a string octet, and two piano trios. For the piano he composed two solo sonatas, an early set of preludes, and a later set of 24 preludes and fugues. Other works include two operas, and a substantial quantity of film music.

Biography

  • SHOSTAKOVICH | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano trio no. 2 in E minor op 67

    IV. Allegretto

    CLASS 5490: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 25' 46''
    Part - 10' 59''
    Part - 25' 46''

SMETANA, Bedrich

Picture: SMETANA, Bedrich

Litonysl, 1824 - Prague, 1884. Czech composer, conductor and critic. The first Czech nationalist composer and the most important of the new generation of Czech opera composers writing from the 1860s. His eight operas established a canon of Czech operas to serve as models for Czech nationalist opera and have remained in the Czech repertory ever since. Such was the force of his musical personality that his musical style became synonymous with Czech nationalist style, his name a rallying point for the polemics which were to continue in Czech musical life into the next century.

Biography

STRAUSS, Richard

Picture: STRAUSS, Richard

Munich, 1864 - Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 1949. German composer and conductor. He emerged soon after the deaths of Wagner and Brahms as the most important living German composer. During an artistic career which spanned nearly eight decades, he composed in virtually all musical genres, but became best known for his tone poems (composed during the closing years of the 19th century) and his operas (from the early decades of the 20th). Coming of age as a composer at a time when the duality of bourgeois and artist had become increasingly problematic, Strauss negotiated the worlds of art and society with a remarkable combination of candour and irony. Averse to the metaphysics of Wagner and indifferent to Mahler's philosophical intentions in music, Strauss exploited instead the paradoxes, inconsistencies and potential profundities to be found in modern, everyday life. The new possibilities he envisioned for music were exemplified in the eclecticism of the opera Der Rosenkavalier, in which the juxtaposition of contemporary with intentionally anachronistic elements creates a stylistic pluralism that adumbrates subsequent experimentation of the later 20th century.

Biography

  • STRAUSS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quartet in C minor op 13

    I. Allegro

    CLASS 7281: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 11' 18''
    Part - 39' 15''
    Vibrato, Timbre - 1' 02''
    Syncopation, Metrics - 1' 15''
    Tempo, Clarity of execution - 1' 07''
    Syncopation, Dynamics - 1' 36''
    Clarity of execution, Metrical rigor or freedom - 2' 01''
    Character, Timbre - 1' 53''
    Bow direction, Sound quality - 1' 41''
    Dynamics, Repetition - 1' 41''
    Dynamics, Character - 2' 21''
    Dynamics, Sound balance - 2' 05''
    Phrasing - 1' 38''
    Expressivity, Bow - 1' 57''
    Tempo, Phrasing - 1' 18''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Rhythm - 1' 31''
    Metrical rigor or freedom - 1' 12''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 21''
  • STRAUSS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Piano quartet in C minor op 13

    II. Scherzo. Presto

    CLASS 7281: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 18' 25''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Character - 1' 00''
    Dynamics - 1' 03''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Indications for the execution - 1' 28''
    Metrical rigor or freedom, Dynamics - 1' 40''
    Description, Rigor or freedom in reading - 1' 38''
    Rhythm, Dynamics - 1' 07''

VASKS, Peteris

Picture: VASKS, Peteris

Aizpute, 1946. Latvian composer. He studied the double bass with V. Ðereika at the Lithuanian State Conservatory (Vilnius) from 1964 to 1970 and graduated from Valentîns Utkins&#146;s composition class at the Latvian State Conservatory (Riga) in 1978. From 1963 to 1974 he played in various symphonic and chamber orchestras in Lithuania and Latvia. Since 1989 Vasks has been teaching composition at the Emîls Dârziòð Music School in Riga. Vasks specializes in instrumental chamber music with programmatic titles, which speak of nature under threat and the need to defend humanity from forces hostile to mankind in the development of civilization. The presence of this ethical imperative creates a deeply meditative basic mood, as well as frequent sharp contrasts between the clear beauty of ideals and tragic pathos. Vasks bases his style on Lutosùawski and the Polish school of the 1960s, but with his own radical individuality and aesthetic rooted in traditional Latvian culture. His works have gained broad attention outside Latvia.

Biography

  • VASKS | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Episodi e Canto perpetuo for violin, cello and piano

    IV. Burlesca I

    CLASS 5167: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 16' 48''
    Part - 6' 36''

ZEMLINSKY, Alexander

Picture: ZEMLINSKY, Alexander

Vienna, 1871 - Larchmont, New York, 1942

Biography

  • ZEMLINSKY | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for clarinet or violin, cello and piano in D minor op 3

    I. Allegro ma non troppo

    CLASS 5505: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 1h 04' 55''
    Part - 4' 19''
  • ZEMLINSKY | Gothoni < Chamber music

    Trio for clarinet or violin, cello and piano in D minor op 3

    II. Andante

    CLASS 5505: [O.V.: English]

    Content

    Part - 13' 14''

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